• brillopedia


Author: Ananya Singh, III year of B.A.,LL.B(Hons) from Alliance School of law, Alliance University, Bangalore.


As government, business, and commerce move into the 21st century and onto the high level of age, it is important for the law to break up with its subject and advance compatibles. Regardless of whether something is a vital or elective source, commonly relies on the point and its use.

A science course book reading would be viewed as a secondary source if in the field of science, since it depicts and decodes the science in any case, makes no exclusive commitment to it. On the other hand, if the point is science training and the historical backdrop of reading material, course books could be utilized an essential sources to take a gander at how they have changed over the long haul.

There exist a couple of new troubles under the watchful eye of the courts while keeping an eye on electronic confirmation – its novel character, joined with its weakness to straightforward assembling and contaminated, and also its distinctive new sources and their unsure status in law. So far, electronic story affirmation was banged along with standard account assertion and was to be appeared under section 61-65 of the Indian Proof Demonstration.

The concept of Primary and Secondary evidence

Primary evidence

The contents of files can be proved either by means of primary proof or secondary proof (section 61). Primary evidence means documents in their original shape produced earlier than the inspection of the courtroom (section 62). That is based totally on the great evidence rule that the original report ought to be produced earlier than the court docket because in its original shape it's miles first hand and the most dependable one.

As an example, if A executes a sale deed in favour of B for rupees 1000/- , B documents an in shape for the ownership of the assets on the premise of the sale deed. A denies the execution of the sale deed. B produces the very sale deed earlier than the courtroom.

This would be the great proof and is primary proof. Every other evidence including copies of the sale deed, a few man or woman who examine the sale deed and make an oral declaration about its contents or the witness who signed it has continually given an opportunity for a few addition or omission to the unique. This is why a unique replica of the file is first-rate evidence.

Secondary Evidence

Secondary evidence is a proof which may be given underneath precise situations in a non-look of the important proof. Section 63 gives the meaning of the auxiliary confirmations which may be created as opposed to important proof beneath situations referenced within the section 65. There may be five conditions inside the section 63, out of which preliminary three preparations showed duplicates of the records, fourth one is worried about the counter quantities of the reviews and fifth one is the oral statement about the substance of records.

1. Certified copies of the original document as licensed by way of the general public officer under section 76 of the Act. Section 76 lies down that every public officer having custody of a public record shall give to someone, on demand of, and on fee of prison prices, a replica of it (public file). A public officer after preparing the copy of the original will affix the certificates on the foot of such reproduction, that it's a far authentic reproduction of the record and cited the date on it. The name of the general public officer in whose custody document the document became and the seal of such officer is likewise affixed on the copy.

2. Copies made from the unique via mechanical procedure documents which might be organized by means of the uniform mechanical manner together with printing, lithography, or photocopy which in themselves guarantee the accuracy of the replica and the copies in comparison with such copies. The best licensed copies of the secondary evidence are admissible as proof under this clause while it is proved that unique is within the ownership of the opposite birthday celebration.

3. Copies made from in comparison with the unique. If a replica is prepared phrase to word from the authentic one, its miles are secondary evidence.

4. Counter the part of the report towards the party who did not execute it is secondary proof.

5. Oral account of the contents of a document given through someone who has himself observed or studied the report.

Distinction amongst Primary and Secondary evidence

The vital confirmation beneath the Indian evidence Act is what seemed to be the most noteworthy kind of prove, regarding precision and esteem. With respect to reports and digital information, essential proof of the substance of a specific archive is definitely the record.

Its miles are represented by using section 62 of the evidence Act, which directs the subtleties of the equal. Non-obligatory proof, interestingly, is what is displayed without essential confirmations, consequently the name. Area 63 characterizes and administers auxiliary confirmations in Indian regulation. Be that as it is able to, it’s a fundamental method for accommodating the prattle control with the regularly taking place difficulty of securing vital confirmations, for there may additionally exist some instances where the primary report or electronic file cannot be created beneath the watchful eye of the court docket.

Admissibility of document as secondary evidence

Production of document as a secondary evidence is permissible best in case the original report (primary) is not available below any circumstance mentioned in the section 65. Consequently, secondary evidence relating to the contents of a report is inadmissible till the non-manufacturing of the original is accounted for, to be able to convey it with one or different of the cases furnished for in the section.

The court has an obligation to decide the query of admissibility of a document in secondary proof earlier than making an endorsement thereon. (H.Siddiqui v. A. Ramalingam, (2011) 4 SCC 240). The software seeking permission to supply secondary proof should supply full information essential to draw the provisions and be supported by way of a right affidavit.

Non- manufacturing of primary file must be proved first earlier than adducing secondary file as evidence. as an instance, a sale deed cannot be considered as a supply of identify in favour of the person in the absence of any clarification about the unique sale deed and the want of producing secondary evidence as a certified copy of that sale deed.

Admissibility of electronic evidence (sec 65A and 65B)

By the effect of science technology, communication and generation, we all used personal computers and different records mostly. In those transactions as an instance, from the CCTV footage to the receipt of online payment and so forth, all are electronic evidences. Those electronic evidences become the part and parcel of our existence, these electronic evidences regularly stores such information which is relevant in courtroom cases.

Therefore to give reputation to the digital information and to set up its admissibility within the court docket of the Information Technology Act 2000 was enacted. The Information Technology Act, 2000 amended numerous section of the Indian evidence Act to include the ‘digital statistics’ as part of documentary proof. Section 3 of the proof Act gives that documentary evidence consists of ‘digital records’.

Admissibility of electronic evidence Sec 65 A and 65B

Digital information has been taken into consideration primary documents and their published reproductions authenticated by means of a competent authority had been treated as secondary proof. Such authority becomes at risk of being cross-examined inside the court docket in recognition of such a file. Statistics technology Act, 2000 added new changes inside the proof Act, now not only within the provisions referring to relevancy but also laid special provisions for the admissibility of electronic information as evidence beneath section 65A and section 65B.

In section 61 to 65 of the evidence Act, the word “report” or “content material of documents” has no longer been replaced via the word “digital document” or “contents of electronic record”. For that reason, the intention of the legislature is explicitly clear that it is no longer to extend the applicability of section 61 to 65 to rule on the admissibility of digital records. This rivalry is similarly reinforced with the aid of the insertion of the words “however anything contained in this Act” in section 65B that's a non- obstante clause, which similarly fortifies the fact that the legislature has supposed the production or exhibition of the electronic facts with the aid of section 65A & 65B simply.

In Nation v Mohd Afjal (2003) 107 DLT 385, it became contended whether or not the computer printouts for the diverse cell phone information proved consistent with section 65B. It was mentioned that the certificate beneath section 65 (IV) is an ‘alternative mode of evidence’. Treating computer output as secondary evidence under sec 65 (d), it changed into and held that the oral evidence is enough. In nation (NCT Delhi) v Navjot Sandhu (2005) 11 SCC 600), admissibility of the cellular call facts becomes wondered. Contentions on behalf of the accused made via the accused that reliance can't be located on the decision statistics in the absence of the certificate of authentication beneath sec 65 B (4) of the evidence Act.

The rejected the competition and held that a pass examination of the ready whiteness familiar with the functioning of the computer for the duration of the applicable time and the manner wherein the printouts of the decision statistics have been taken become enough to prove the decision facts. It became further held that despite the fact that the requirement under section 65B (4) was now not happy, proof might be produced underneath section 63 and 65 of the Act.

In Anvar P.V v P. k. Basheer (2014) SC 10 SCC 473, the Apex courtroom overruled the Navjot Sandhu case and held that Sec 65B (4) presents a necessary pre situation for the admissibility of the digital information, and certificates of authentication beneath such section are obligatory and is the best manner to hold an electronic document admissible before the court of regulation.

The courtroom held that studying the section 65A with the sec 59 and 63 and 65 of the Act offers that the special provisions relating to the admissibility of the electronic records will be governed by the procedure prescribed within the sec 65B of the proof Act. It’s miles whole in all feel and being special regulation supersedes the general regulation (‘Generlia speciallibus non derogant’ way unique law will usually be successful over fashionable regulation’), this is supported through the fact that sec 65B starts with the expression ‘however something contained’ as a ‘non obstante clause’.


In conclusion, with respect to the technological advancement, the admissibility of the secondary electronic evidence has to be adjudged within the restrictions of Section 65B of the Evidence Act and the suggestion of the law established in the recent judgment of the Apex Court and numerous other High Courts as deliberated above. However, there are few gaps which are still unsettled as what would be the outcome of the secondary electronic evidence detained from the accused wherein, the certificate under section 65B of Evidence Act cannot be taken and "No person accused of any offence shall be obligated to be a witness against himself" as per Article 20(3) of the Constitution of India.” Also, the importance of the Anvar judgment cannot be underestimated.

The need for regulation to evolve with the quick-developing use of generation in all spheres of lifestyles is amazing, and sections 65A and 65B contribute to that to an outstanding quantity. However, as determined, the issues in the Anvar judgment in addition to the brand new provisions cannot be ignored. Section 65B lays down several strict situations, non-compliance with which may additionally render extraordinarily crucial evidence inadmissible.