THE CHINESE CRUSADE ON EXTREME POVERTY
Author: Harjeet Singh, III year of Political Science Honors from University of Delhi
All the consensus produced by the West, taking into consideration China's social and political policies, may vilify the communist regime. However, one fact has no opposition alleviating the Chinese population from the misery of poverty descending towards the era of prosperity steering their density away from the century of humiliation, asserting it with the most incredible clarity that the 21st century is the century of China. The covid period when other nations endearing to sustain lively hood of their population, where the poverty sore up to historical levels affected four billion people out of which around seven hundred million people worldwide witnessed extreme poverty adding 150 million alone during the covid pandemic in this chaos leaving behind every other country China successfully eliminated extreme poverty this is due to the fusion of what western economist calls centralized capitalism. The reliance on domestic consumption, which made forty percent of the total GDP, assisted the gradual progress of the Chinese people brought around eight hundred million people out of poverty in the last forty years showing us the path through which the goal of sustainable development eradication of poverty.
Extreme poverty not only poses the risk of mass human extinction from Chronic hunger diseases but, in the long run, destabilize a country, especially in the case of climate change depleting the resources simultaneously. In 2017, Asia accounted for nearly two-thirds, sixty-three percent of the world's hungry, and almost 151 million children under 5, 22 percent, were stunted in 2017 across the globe. The measures to reduce and counter extreme poverty and fulfill the first sustainable development goals in this essay are derived from various experiences and programs, including governmental policies, the private force's role in the open market, and religious societies and groups. Mainly three components attribute poverty development to poverty: employment opportunity, hunger, education, and skills complemented by government initiatives and policy implementation.
Moreover, government interventions require, but with IMF assistance, nations might find themselves out of money to find those projects for the global alliance must be made. In Asia, India is the closest nation which both in terms of resources and human resources, has the potential of eradication of poverty, but unlike China who focused on ground-level shift, India failed to organize and maximize its resources potential, which led to the late arrival of globalization in India in the early 1990s when Chinese opened their economy in 1978. After the end of the century of humiliation China gained independence in 1949, facing the humongous crisis where poverty stood at 87.5% of the Chinese population. Tackling the issue man brought a great leap forward and other economic initiatives but did not make a significant shift in the development of China. After Mao died, his critic Den Zaoping rose to power and in 1978, taking inspiration from Lee yuan President of Singapore, brought the economic reform which he stated "Opening up the market" and later declared Shanghai as an experiment model by allowing foreign companies to invest into the market" and later proclaimed Shanghai as an experiment model by making Shanghai a special economic zone enabling foreign companies to invest in the Shanghai which reported substantial upward movement in employment line simultaneously a remarkable fall in unemployment.
During the reign of Deng Xiaoping, China adopted the reforms in the economy by opening up the market but keeping the political structure as is it. This development enabled the Chinese to restrict the scope of crony capitalism, and simultaneously, as the economy flourished, job raise noticed. China prefers two significant components, which are different from other Western countries first) Compulsory education for all, including Project-based innovation, Second the concentration upon specialization, which analyzed three villages, turned into monopoly companies. These combinations of Economics and Education, especially in south Asian countries, could exert a panacea to eradicate extreme poverty.
According to the world bank, in 1990, around 66.3 percent of the Chinese population were under extreme poverty, and approximately 88 percent in 1981 were under poverty by 2021, extreme poverty was eradicated, and poverty was close to 0 percent. No one can change the condition unless two entities work together if the poor must lift, it does not matter which system we choose if the outcome can bring a significant shift, we must adopt. This type of mentality enables foreign firms with some limitations to work in Chinese, and as foreign companies arrived in China, the employment rate skyrocketed. This surge in employment also encouraged the mass to enroll themselves in schools and acquire the highest level of education to maintain themselves employable. Several universities adopted the model of project-based education, pushing the individual to go beyond the limits and search for innovations the not only reflected in China but enabled the Chinese to gain access to foreign universities simultaneously currently, the second most university in the top by one country is from China around 22 universities. China first emphasizes mass education than higher education in the initial stage Education empowers the average Chinese person whose literacy is 96.84% in 2018.
Education is sustainable development goal 4, ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all. The realization of quality education can also help realize other purposes, one of the most fundamental and effective means to eliminate poverty. This overall development of skills and education fusion assisted the Chinese firms to maximize the reliance on their people from the development of China rather than foreign forces, which we have seen in the case of Taobao, Button polis, and Sha Steel.
Button polis The Qiao Tou Button City near the town of Qiao Tou in China is a market reputed for trading buttons. It started in 1983. More than 60% of the world's buttons are manufactured in the Chinese town of Qiao Tou. Taobao Alibaba's Taobao e-commerce site significantly reduces coordination costs and boosts efficiency in China's economy and arguably in the world's economy--and supports an estimated 10 million jobs or 1.3 percent of China's labor force. The village Factory Sha- Steel Sha Steel, founded in 1975, now produces 41.1 million tons of crude steel alone, more than the entire Germany 39.7 (use in BRI project).
These initiatives contributed significantly to the development of China and are the main driving force behind the eradication of extreme poverty. It occurs because of the cooperation between government and institutions where instead of reliance on foreign companies developed the average organization turning village individual as a unit in the village organization contributing directly to the development of this nation through cooperation alongside the entire spectrum industrialization secures that China could on its product and has the capacity to maintain such growth without the international trade which we can see through the GDP portion of export standing at 2%.
Extreme poverty is linked with several issues mentioned in the UN sustainable development goal resolution like education, employment, and so on, and tackling the eradication of poverty cannot be done by leveraging other aspects like education it requires cooperation between government and people within and outside the administration like NGO, small societies maximizing the utilization of resources leading to a significant upward shift in the Development chart. The three-stage layer laid out the plan with universal application. In several countries like India, this plan is already in process nonetheless, other factors like political will and redistribution of resources and opportunity according to the capacity is the reason why it shows limited success. This type of machine requires a corruption-free administration in other to maximize the potential at last, it requires the active participation of the society to cross the barriers of class, community, and sects behind and assist each other towards the goal of the development of its society without leaving anyone behind.