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Updated: Jul 10, 2023

Author: Satyam Sah, IV year student of BHARATI VIDYAPEETH, NEW LAW COLLEGE PUNE

Co-author: Krati Gupta, IV year student of BHARATI VIDYAPEETH, NEW LAW COLLEGE PUNE


Justice P.N. Bhagwati once aptly stated that "legal aid means providing a regulation in society that makes the legal administration easily accessible and available to those who need to resort to it to enforce their legal rights." The Constitution of India guarantees free legal aid under Article 39A to all its citizens, but complex procedures, inadequate infrastructure, and language barriers have restricted access to legal services for many. The Constitution of India guarantees free legal aid, but complex procedures and inadequate infrastructure restrict access. Technology has revolutionized the legal landscape in India, providing tailored legal information and enhancing delivery. However, marginalized communities still struggle to access legal aid.

This article explores how innovation in legal aid is making justice more accessible to all in India. It begins with the traditional legal aid system in India. Finally, it addresses the challenges and opportunities of technology in legal aid and concludes with a call to action for the legal and tech communities to join forces and ensure equal access to justice for all.

The Traditional Legal Aid System

The traditional legal aid system in India primarily involved face-to-face interactions between lawyers and clients. However, this approach posed several challenges that hindered the effective delivery of legal services to those who need them the most. For example, outreach to those in need of legal aid was limited, especially in remote or hard-to-reach areas. Additionally, traditional legal aid processes were time-consuming and resource-intensive, making it difficult for legal aid providers to reach a large number of people.

Finally, the high cost of providing legal aid without technology was prohibitive, especially when it came to travel expenses, document processing, and administrative costs. This limited the reach and impact of legal aid services, making it difficult to serve a large number of people in need.

To address these challenges, there have been significant efforts to modernize and expand legal aid services in India, including through the use of technology. Online legal aid portals and virtual consultations have helped to bridge the gap between lawyers and clients. The Hussainara Khatoon case in India is a landmark case that brought attention to the lack of legal aid services for indigent prisoners. The case led to the establishment of the first legal aid clinic in India and paved the way for the Legal Services Authorities Act of 1987, which provides free legal aid to the poor and marginalized sections of society. Initiatives such as legal literacy campaigns have helped to raise awareness about legal rights and entitlements among the general population. Additionally, mobile applications and chatbots have been developed to provide quick and efficient legal aid services to those in need. This has helped to make legal aid services more accessible and efficient, especially for those in remote areas.

Overall, the modernization and expansion of legal aid services in India through the use of technology have been instrumental in promoting access to justice for all. The use of technology has helped to overcome the limitations of the traditional legal aid system and has made legal aid services more accessible to a larger number of people. However, it is important to ensure that technology-based legal aid services are accessible to all, regardless of socio-economic status or geographic location, and that they are implemented in a way that is efficient and cost-effective.


Technology has indeed made significant advancements in various aspects of our lives, including the legal field. These advancements have revolutionized the way legal aid services are delivered, making them more accessible, cost-effective, and efficient.

One of the most significant contributions of technology to legal aid is its ability to make legal services easily accessible to those who are unable to physically visit legal aid centers or courts. Through the use of digital platforms, individuals can now access legal information, advice, and representation from the comfort of their homes or offices. Virtual hearings, video conferencing, and online dispute-resolution mechanisms have become increasingly popular, making it possible for individuals to participate in legal proceedings remotely.

During the Covid-19 pandemic, the use of technology in the legal field has grown significantly. Virtual courts and video conferencing have empowered the consultation and removal of millions of cases. Indeed, even “the current CJI, Justice DY Chandrachud,” in the All India District Legal Services meeting, focused on enhancing the use of technology for better access to legal services. He talked about the plans he had for incorporating technology into the judicial system in the future, such as using macro data-based artificial intelligence processing, developing virtual courts, and integrating common service centers at the Gram Panchayat level with E Court facilities. The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA), Pro Bono India, LawRato, Vakalatnama, and MyAdvo are just a few of the websites and apps that provide free legal assistance in India. Users of these platforms can connect with lawyers, receive legal advice and assistance, and create and file legal documents online through these platforms.

Additionally, the Indian government has taken a number of steps to offer citizens who cannot afford legal representation free of charge. One such drive is “The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA),” which gives free lawful guidance and help to individuals who can't manage the cost of it. Free legal assistance has also been provided by the government and a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), such as GOI- the Access to Justice Project, which is run by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). In addition, the government has launched the Tele-Law initiative, which provides remote and inaccessible residents of the country with legal assistance via video conferencing facilities. These projects and initiatives highlight the government's commitment to providing legal aid services to those who most need them. They are significant steps toward ensuring that everyone in India has access to justice.


Innovation in legal aid has created opportunities for technology to make justice more accessible. However, there are several challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that technology-enabled legal aid services are effective and inclusive. One of the main challenges is ensuring that technology is accessible to everyone, including those who may not have access to digital devices or the internet. To address this, legal aid clinics can be set up in remote or underprivileged areas to provide legal assistance and raise awareness about legal rights. Additionally, mobile applications like Nyaya Bandhu and Vidhikarya can help bridge the gap between lawyers and clients, allowing people to access legal aid services from anywhere, anytime. Law firms can also provide pro bono work to ensure that legal aid services are available to underprivileged and economically disadvantaged communities.

Another challenge is ensuring that technology is effectively integrated into legal education to promote social justice. This can be done by creating online courses, training modules, and certification programs that provide students with the skills they need to use technology to provide legal aid. Legal aid organizations can also collaborate with law schools and universities to incorporate clinical legal education into their curriculum and provide students with hands-on experience in providing legal aid services to underprivileged communities.

Collaboration is also essential in promoting justice for all. Legal aid organizations should engage with law enforcement agencies, tech companies, media outlets, and other organizations to provide legal aid services that are accessible to everyone. This can be achieved through initiatives like online receptions that are available 24/7, virtual legal aid clinics, and digitization of clinical legal education in law colleges. By sharing best practices, expertise, and funding, legal aid organizations can work together to develop innovative solutions and overcome common challenges. GAJE (Global Alliance For Justice Education) is one such organization works to promote access to justice by supporting the development of community-based legal aid programs. In addition to these efforts, GAJE works to promote access to justice by fostering collaboration among legal educators, practitioners, and activists from around the world. In addition, collaborating with tech startups can also drive innovation in legal aid services. Startups are often at the forefront of technological advances and can bring new ideas and solutions to the legal aid sector. Legal aid organizations can partner with startups to develop new tools and platforms that can enhance the delivery of legal aid services.

Finally, while technology is an important tool in expanding access to legal aid services, it is important to recognize that “it is not a silver bullet and must be used in conjunction with other approaches to reach the most marginalized and vulnerable populations”. Legal literacy campaigns and awareness programs can be conducted through traditional media outlets like radio and television to reach people who don't have access to technology.


The use of technology in legal aid has brought significant improvements to the traditional legal aid system in India. The challenges of limited outreach, time-consuming processes, and high costs have been overcome through the modernization and expansion of legal aid services. However, ensuring equal access to technology-based legal aid services for everyone, regardless of socio-economic status or geographic location, remains a priority. Cooperation between the legal and tech communities is needed to make legal aid efficient, effective, and sustainable. Ultimately, by working together, we can ensure that all individuals in India have access to justice and are not left behind.


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