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Author: Vidhi Krishali, IV Year of B.B.A.,LL.B from Symbiosis Law School, Hyderabad [Symbiosis International (Deemed) University, Pune].


Child abuse is an all-embracing issue in India, which frequently has immediate harmful impacts on children and the possibility of many lifetime difficulties. Child sexual abuse (CSA), like it is in many areas of the globe today, is a significant and widespread issue in India. Trauma connected with sexual abuse and several emotional and psychological problems that some children and teenagers cannot overcome may also contribute to halted development. When sexual assault remains undetected, and children are not provided with the protection and psychological help they need, they stay silent.

Child sexual abuse (CSA), in conjunction with force or coercion, is defined as an abuse of power and authority leading to the exploitation of children. This entails situations where the older adults or children have sufficient power and strength to obtain sexual satisfaction from those who are developed immature and where consent of the victim results in the absence of conception. Such satisfaction may entail explicit sexual activity or intrusive and inappropriate actions without direct contact.

Case Study

The horrid case of rape of a minor in Kathua shook the entire nation. The 8-year-old girl was violently raped up by eight random men in a Temple. She was allegedly detained and raped for days in the temple, which seems to have been an attempt to expel the rest of the community from the location.

There were 7 or 8 suspects, Sanji Ram, former revenue officer, Deepak Khajuria and  Surendra Verma from Special Police, two investigating officials - Tilak Raj, Chief Constable, and Anand Dutta Sub-Inspector, and Parvesh Kumar, a civilian. The accused of rape and killing a child were convicted. On 10 January, the little girl was abducted at a tiny rural temple in Khathua, Jammu district and Kashmir, and reportedly gang rape was taken. On 17 January, the wounded corpse of the little girl was located in the jungle.

Three individuals were condemned to death by the Special Courts.  The master perpetrator of this crime was Sanji Ram. The three major defendants, Deepak Khajuria and Parvesh Kumar have been awarded a death punishment and the 3 have received life imprisonment. They were accused with conspiracy, murder, kidnapping, gang rape, destruction of evidence, drugs and common purpose. The other defendants—Anand Dutta, Tilak Raj and Surendra Verma were sentenced to five years in jail and 50 000 fines for destruction of evidence. But Vishal Jangotra, son of Sanji Ram, was acquitted by the courtroom for ‘Benefit of Doubt.’ One accused was underage and the examination procedure resumed

There is a coherent demand of “The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act POSCO act in India. But after this act has been performed, instances involving sexual offences against minors are increasing and the penalty mentioned in it is far smaller for the extent of the crime. The legislation should be strictly applied to defend the dignified childhood of the children. The penalty should be further up, since such an abominable act may impair a child’s childhood, therefore affecting a child’s physical and emotional health. There are various disadvantages to this conduct in connection with child sexual abuse. The violation and murder in the kathua gang rape case did not influence the country’s status since the crime rate has risen after that occurrence. It is not applied in practice what we read in the Act.

Cognitive Aspect

Child sexual abuse may cause internal incisions and bleeding based on the age and size of the child and the level of strength exerted. Danger to internal organs may develop in extreme circumstances, which may cause death, in certain cases. Child maltreatment may induce sexually transmitted illnesses and disorders. Due to a lack of vaginal fluid, the probability of infection is increased depending on the age of the kid. Also reported were vaginitis. Treatment: The first strategy to treating a victim of sexual abuse depends on several crucial factors: age at the time of presentation, treatment circumstances and co-morbid illnesses. The aim of therapy is to address existing problems in the field of mental health and avoid future problems.

Emotional Aspect

Child sexual abuse, including later-life psychopathology, may cause both short-term and long-term damage. Repeated or recurrent victims throughout adolescence and adulthood are a well known, long term deleterious impact. There have been causal links between childhood sexual abuse and numerous psychopathologies of adults, including criminality and suicide and drug misuse.

The criminal justice system is more common for guys who have been abused sexually as youngsters than for men with severe mental health conditions. It was discovered that intergenerational impacts had more issues, peer problems, and emotional problems than their parents among children who were victims of child sexual abuse. The societal stigma of child sexual abuse may make children more affected by psychological trauma than the harmful effects of child abuse, with supporting families, are less probable. Depression, somatization, anxiety, eating disorders, low self-esteem and sleep difficulties are indicators and consequences, including after-traumatic stress disorders. The results of this analysis will be obtained. Victims may leave school and social activities and have numerous learning and behaviour difficulties, including animal cruelty, ADHD, a disorder of conduct, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), etc. Victims are allowed to withdraw from school and social activities. In adolescence, teenage pregnancy and unsafe sexual behaviour. Victims of child sexual abuse report roughly four times more damage to themselves. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) dissociation and disorder: The development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, including amnesia for memories of abuse, was shown in connection with abuse by children, including sex, particularly chronic abuse commencing at an early age. Having happened severe sexual abuse (penetration, many offenders, more than one year) was even more prevalent than that. In addition to dissociative identity (DID) and post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder and eating disorganizations, including bulimia nervousa, may occur to survivors of child sexual abuse.

Social Aspect

The most striking stigmatic component is regrettable. Victims are facing dishonour and humiliation in society rather than offenders. They are accused of being abused. The stigmatization of the abused victims is quite severe and distressing. In the future life of the victim, stigmatization takes place more often in a non-abusive relationship. Significant per cent of abused children’s parents do not counsel their children for societal stigma for health problems.


There has been wide-ranging discussion on the impacts of violent events like as sexual abuse as the implications of traumatic experiences in infancy are significantly connected with alterations in cognitive, emotional and behavioural malfunctions that may continue up to maturity. The ongoing pandemic of sexual abuse (SA) is culturally and societally-independent. Sexual abuse Brazil still needs further study on how the emotional and cognitive elements of SA victims are evaluated, since applications for assessments in the court setting are also increasing.

In general, compared with the near lack of judicial training, psychologists are better acquainted with clinical studies. The conduct of the forensic psychological assessment thus demands a thorough understanding and a profound knowledge of the grounds, purpose and application of psychological tools, as well as knowledge of the normal and abnormal psychological functioning of the person and a concept of law. It also needs consistent fields of psychology, developmental psychology, personality (traits and disorders), cognitive psychology (care, memory, thinking, etc., psychological processes), assessment procedures and forensic interview protocols with abused children.

The knowledge of these areas will help a psychologist to recognise how someone thinks (which is related with cognitive processes), how they feel and how they adjust the pattern of interaction with the environment, dependent on their emotional organisation and psychological characteristics. The ability to systematise the assessment of these populations by establishing a referential protocol will therefore provide more evidence on clinical, social and cognitive issues, support referencing more effectively, support in judiciary matters and preventive work in schools, and in the field of SA victims' mental health.


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